Sleep is an essential component of healthy development and is required for physical and mental health in humans. Sleep function is one of the most persistent and perplexing mysteries in biology, and many theories have been put forward to explain why we spend a third of our lives sleeping, including the theory of inactivity, the theory of conservation of energy , The theory of restoration and the theory of brain plasticity. Although these theories remain unproven, science has made great strides in discovering what happens during sleep and what mechanisms in the body control the sleep and wake cycles that help define our lives. Resurge Review
Despite strong evidence indicating the importance of sleep, insufficient levels have become widespread. In children and adolescents, international findings show that sleep duration (from 10 to 15 years) has been reduced from 23 to 44 minutes in the period 1985 to 2004.
The reason for the decreased sleep is uncertain, but may be related to increased use of electricity and light, technology, and modern lifestyle. Specifically, lack of sleep is believed to be due to increased screen time, such as watching television, computer games, and using the Internet and mobile phones. Chronic and poor sleep deprivation can lead to various negative health consequences, such as overweight and obesity, fatigue, heart disease, hypertension, depression, impaired immune functions, type 2 diabetes, etc. In recent years, several epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between sleep deprivation and an increased risk of obesity. Furthermore, numerous longitudinal studies have found that lack of sleep is associated with weight gain.
Chronic sleep restriction is generally defined as the usual duration of sleep of less than 7 hours, but more than 4 hours, per night. Lack of adequate sleep affects mood, motivation, judgment, and our perception of events and has an impact on learning and memory. When we are sleep deprived, our focus, attention and vigilance change, making it more difficult to receive information. Furthermore, our judgment deteriorates. We lose our ability to make sound decisions because we can no longer accurately assess the situation, plan accordingly, and choose the right behavior.
The trend toward decreased sleep duration and decreased sleep quality has paralleled an increase in the prevalence of obesity that has almost tripled between 1975 and 2016, and has become an epidemic across the globe. world. Global WHO estimates show that in 2016, 39% of adults were overweight and 13% were obese (OB). In the United States, obesity-related conditions cost more than $ 150 billion each year, causing approximately 300,000 premature deaths.
Obesity increased from 921 million in 1980 to 2.1 billion in 2013, and it was estimated to cause 3.4 million deaths worldwide in 2010. Excessive food consumption and inadequate physical activity are primary factors that contribute to the increase in the prevalence of obesity in recent decades. There are also a number of other possible contributors, including changes in the gut microbiome, changes in diet composition, genetics, sleep deprivation, stress, environmental, hormonal, and neural factors.
Sleep plays an important role in modulating hormone release, glucose regulation, and cardiovascular function, and the increased risk of obesity is possibly related to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play an important role in central control of appetite and caloric expenditure. Several studies have found an association between sleep deprivation and dysregulated appetite control due to the change in secretion of leptin (suppresses appetite) and ghrelin (stimulates appetite).
Emerging hedonic pathways provide an additional potential mechanism by which loss of sleep could lead to changes in dietary intake and eating behavior. Additionally, those who get little sleep have more hours to wake up, presenting opportunities to increase food intake, with a greater preference for energy-rich, carbohydrate-rich foods and snacks. The results of clinical studies vary, but most of the evidence shows that acute sleep deprivation is associated with increased calorie intake. Furthermore, it is presumed that lack of sleep can lead to increased tiredness, likely to affect physical activity (PA), both through a reduction in thermogenesis from non-exercise activity (NEAT) and planned PA.